Both Sony RX1R and Leica Q have Full frame sized 24.0 MP resolution sensors so sensor size and resolution is not a differentiator between these two cameras.
Another difference between these two cameras is that Sony RX1R's sensor lacks anti-alias (Low-Pass) filter. Removing anti-alias filter increases the sharpness and level of detail but at the same time, it increases the chance of moire occurring in certain scenes.
Below you can see the RX1R and Q Typ 116 sensor size comparison.
Sony RX1R and Leica Q have almost the same sensor size so none of them has any significant advantage over other in providing control over depth of field when used with same focal length and aperture.
DxOMark Sensor Scores
Both Sony RX1R and Leica Q sensors have been tested by DxoMark. DxoMark scores camera sensors for color depth (DXO Portrait), dynamic range (DXO Landscape) and low-light sensitivity (DXO Sports), and also gives them an overall score. Of the two cameras that we are comparing, RX1R has scored 91, 6 points higher than Q Typ 116.