Sony RX10 IV has a 20.0MP 1" (13.2 x 8.8 mm ) sized BSI-CMOS sensor and features Bionz X processor. On the other hand, Panasonic FZ300 has a 12.0MP 1/2.3" (6.17 x 4.55 mm ) sized CMOS sensor and features Venus Engine processor.
Sony RX10 IV's sensor provides 8MP more than Panasonic FZ300's sensor, which gives a significant advantage in real life. You can print your images larger or crop more freely.
On the other hand, please keep in mind that Max sensor resolution is not the only determinant of resolving power. Factors such as the optical elements, low pass filter, pixel size and sensor technology also affects the final resolution of the captured image.
Below you can see the RX10 IV and FZ300 sensor size comparison.
As seen above, Sony RX10 IV has a 4.1x Larger sensor area than Panasonic FZ300. Larger sensors give photographer more control on the depth of field and blurry background compared to smaller sensor when shot in same focal length and aperture.