Pentax K-1 has a 36.0MP Full frame (35.9 x 24 mm ) sized CMOS sensor . On the other hand, Canon 80D has a 24.0MP APS-C (22.5 x 15 mm ) sized CMOS sensor and features DIGIC 6 processor.
Pentax K-1's sensor provides 12MP more than Canon 80D's sensor, which gives a significant advantage in real life. You can print your images larger or crop more freely.
On the other hand, please keep in mind that Max sensor resolution is not the only determinant of resolving power. Factors such as the optical elements, low pass filter, pixel size and sensor technology also affects the final resolution of the captured image.
Another difference between these two cameras is that Pentax K-1's sensor lacks anti-alias (Low-Pass) filter. Removing anti-alias filter increases the sharpness and level of detail but at the same time, it increases the chance of moire occurring in certain scenes.
Below you can see the K-1 and 80D sensor size comparison.
As seen above, Pentax K-1 has a 2.6x Larger sensor area than Canon 80D. Larger sensors give photographer more control on the depth of field and blurry background compared to smaller sensor when shot in same focal length and aperture.
DxOMark Sensor Scores
Both Pentax K-1 and Canon 80D sensors have been tested by DxoMark. DxoMark scores camera sensors for color depth (DXO Portrait), dynamic range (DXO Landscape) and low-light sensitivity (DXO Sports), and also gives them an overall score. Of the two cameras that we are comparing, K-1 has scored 96, 17 points higher than 80D.