Pentax K-1 has a 36.0MP Full frame (35.9 x 24 mm ) sized CMOS sensor . On the other hand, Canon 6D MII has a 26.0MP Full frame (35.9 x 24 mm ) sized CMOS sensor and features DIGIC 7 processor.
Pentax K-1's sensor provides 10MP more than Canon 6D MII's sensor, which gives a significant advantage in real life. You can print your images larger or crop more freely.
On the other hand, please keep in mind that Max sensor resolution is not the only determinant of resolving power. Factors such as the optical elements, low pass filter, pixel size and sensor technology also affects the final resolution of the captured image.
Another difference between these two cameras is that Pentax K-1's sensor lacks anti-alias (Low-Pass) filter. Removing anti-alias filter increases the sharpness and level of detail but at the same time, it increases the chance of moire occurring in certain scenes.
Below you can see the K-1 and 6D MII sensor size comparison.
Pentax K-1 and Canon 6D MII have sensor sizes so they will provide same level of control over the depth of field when used with same focal length and aperture. On the other hand, since Canon 6D MII has 39% larger pixel area (33.19µm2 vs 23.83µm2) compared to Pentax K-1, it has larger pixel area to collect light hence potential to have less noise in low light / High ISO images.
DxOMark Sensor Scores
Both Pentax K-1 and Canon 6D MII sensors have been tested by DxoMark. DxoMark scores camera sensors for color depth (DXO Portrait), dynamic range (DXO Landscape) and low-light sensitivity (DXO Sports), and also gives them an overall score. Of the two cameras that we are comparing, K-1 has scored 96, 11 points higher than 6D MII.