Panasonic FZ80 has a 18.0MP 1/2.3 (6.17 x 4.55 mm ) sized BSI-CMOS sensor and features Venus Engine processor. On the other hand, Canon ELPH 530 HS has a 10.0MP 1/2.3-inch (6.17 x 4.55 mm ) sized BSI-CMOS sensor and features DIGIC 5 processor.
Panasonic FZ80's sensor provides 8MP more than Canon ELPH 530 HS's sensor, which gives a significant advantage in real life. You can print your images larger or crop more freely.
On the other hand, please keep in mind that Max sensor resolution is not the only determinant of resolving power. Factors such as the optical elements, low pass filter, pixel size and sensor technology also affects the final resolution of the captured image.
Below you can see the FZ80 and ELPH 530 HS sensor size comparison.
Panasonic FZ80 and Canon ELPH 530 HS have the same sensor sizes so they will provide same level of control over the depth of field when used with same focal length and aperture. On the other hand, since Canon ELPH 530 HS has 80% larger pixel area (2.81µm2 vs 1.56µm2) compared to Panasonic FZ80, it has larger pixel area to collect light hence potential to have less noise in low light / High ISO images.