Fujifilm X-Pro3 has a 26.0MP APS-C (23.5 x 15.6 mm ) sized BSI-CMOS sensor and features X-Processor 4 processor. On the other hand, Leica M10 has a 24.0MP Full frame (35.8 x 23.9 mm ) sized CMOS sensor and features Maestro II processor.
Another difference between these two cameras is that Fujifilm X-Pro3's sensor lacks anti-alias (Low-Pass) filter. Removing anti-alias filter increases the sharpness and level of detail but at the same time, it increases the chance of moire occurring in certain scenes.
Below you can see the X-Pro3 and M10 sensor size comparison.
As seen above, Leica M10 has a 2.3x Larger sensor area than Fujifilm X-Pro3. Larger sensors give photographer more control on the depth of field and blurry background compared to smaller sensor when shot in same focal length and aperture.