Canon R3 has a 24.0MP Full frame (36 x 24 mm ) sized Stacked CMOS sensor and features Digic X processor. On the other hand, Pentax K-1 II has a 36.0MP Full frame (35.9 x 24 mm ) sized CMOS sensor and features PRIME IV processor.
Pentax K-1 II's sensor provides 12MP more than Canon R3's sensor, which gives a significant advantage in real life. You can print your images larger or crop more freely.
On the other hand, please keep in mind that Max sensor resolution is not the only determinant of resolving power. Factors such as the optical elements, low pass filter, pixel size and sensor technology also affects the final resolution of the captured image.
One other difference between these two cameras that is worth mentioning is that Pentax K-1 II's sensor doesn't have an anti-alias (Low-Pass) filter. Removing anti-alias filter increases the sharpness and level of detail but at the same time, it increases the chance of moire occurring in certain scenes.
Below you can see the R3 and K-1 Mark II sensor size comparison.
Canon R3 and Pentax K-1 II have almost the same sensor size so none of them has any significant advantage over other in providing control over depth of field when used with same focal length and aperture.