Both Canon 80D and Pentax K-3 have APS-C sized 24.0 MP resolution sensors so sensor size and resolution is not a differentiator between these two cameras.
Another difference between these two cameras is that Pentax K-3's sensor lacks anti-alias (Low-Pass) filter. Removing anti-alias filter increases the sharpness and level of detail but at the same time, it increases the chance of moire occurring in certain scenes.
Below you can see the 80D and K-3 sensor size comparison.
Canon 80D and Pentax K-3 have almost the same sensor size so none of them has any significant advantage over other in providing control over depth of field when used with same focal length and aperture.