Canon 5D MIV has a 30.0MP Full frame (36 x 24 mm ) sized CMOS sensor and features Digic 6+ processor. On the other hand, Canon 1D C has a 18.0MP Full frame (36 x 24 mm ) sized CMOS sensor and features Dual Digic 5+ processor.
Canon 5D MIV's sensor provides 12MP more than Canon 1D C's sensor, which gives a significant advantage in real life. You can print your images larger or crop more freely.
On the other hand, please keep in mind that Max sensor resolution is not the only determinant of resolving power. Factors such as the optical elements, low pass filter, pixel size and sensor technology also affects the final resolution of the captured image.
Below you can see the 5D MIV and 1D C sensor size comparison.
Canon 5D MIV and Canon 1D C have the same sensor sizes so they will provide same level of control over the depth of field when used with same focal length and aperture. On the other hand, since Canon 1D C has 68% larger pixel area (48.21µm2 vs 28.69µm2) compared to Canon 5D MIV, it has larger pixel area to collect light hence potential to have less noise in low light / High ISO images.