Canon 100D has a 18.0MP APS-C (22.3 x 14.9 mm ) sized CMOS sensor and features Digic 5 processor. On the other hand, Nikon D5200 has a 24.0MP APS-C (23.5 x 15.6 mm ) sized CMOS sensor and features Expeed 3 processor.
Nikon D5200's sensor provides 6MP more than Canon 100D's sensor, which gives a significant advantage in real life. You can print your images larger or crop more freely.
On the other hand, please keep in mind that Max sensor resolution is not the only determinant of resolving power. Factors such as the optical elements, low pass filter, pixel size and sensor technology also affects the final resolution of the captured image.
Below you can see the 100D and D5200 sensor size comparison.
As seen above, Nikon D5200 has a 1.1x Larger sensor area than Canon 100D. Larger sensors give photographer more control on the depth of field and blurry background compared to smaller sensor when shot in same focal length and aperture.
DxOMark Sensor Scores
DxOMark is a benchmark that scientifically assesses image quality of camera sensors. It scores camera sensors for color depth (DXO Portrait), dynamic range (DXO Landscape) and low-light sensitivity (DXO Sports), and also gives them an overall score. Canon 100D and Nikon D5200 sensors have been tested by DxO and the results show that D5200 has a better overall score of 84, 21 points higher compared to 100D's score of 63.