Sigma Quattro has a 29.0MP APS-C (23.5 x 15.6 mm ) sized CMOS (Foveon X3) sensor and features Dual TRUE III processor. On the other hand, Panasonic GX9 has a 20.0MP Four Thirds (17.3 x 13 mm ) sized CMOS sensor and features Venus Engine processor.
Sigma Quattro's sensor provides 9MP more than Panasonic GX9's sensor, which gives a significant advantage in real life. You can print your images larger or crop more freely.
On the other hand, please keep in mind that Max sensor resolution is not the only determinant of resolving power. Factors such as the optical elements, low pass filter, pixel size and sensor technology also affects the final resolution of the captured image.
One other difference between these two cameras that is worth mentioning is that Panasonic GX9's sensor doesn't have an anti-alias (Low-Pass) filter. Removing anti-alias filter increases the sharpness and level of detail but at the same time, it increases the chance of moire occurring in certain scenes.
Below you can see the Quattro and GX9 sensor size comparison.
As seen above, Sigma Quattro has a 1.6x Larger sensor area than Panasonic GX9. Larger sensors give photographer more control on the depth of field and blurry background compared to smaller sensor when shot in same focal length and aperture.