Panasonic S1 has a 24.0MP Full frame (35.6 x 23.8 mm ) sized CMOS sensor and features Venus Engine processor. On the other hand, Leica SL2 has a 47.0MP Full frame (36 x 24 mm ) sized CMOS sensor and features Maestro III processor.
Leica SL2's sensor provides 23MP more than Panasonic S1's sensor, which gives a significant advantage in real life. You can print your images larger or crop more freely.
On the other hand, please keep in mind that Max sensor resolution is not the only determinant of resolving power. Factors such as the optical elements, low pass filter, pixel size and sensor technology also affects the final resolution of the captured image.
Another similarity between these two cameras is that both Leica SL2 and Panasonic S1 sensors lack anti-alias (Low-Pass) filters. Removing anti-alias filter increases the sharpness and level of detail but at the same time, it increases the chance of moire occurring in certain scenes.
Below you can see the S1 and SL2 sensor size comparison.
Panasonic S1 and Leica SL2 have almost the same sensor size so none of them has any significant advantage over other in providing control over depth of field when used with same focal length and aperture.