Panasonic S1 has a 24.0MP Full frame (35.6 x 23.8 mm ) sized CMOS sensor and features Venus Engine processor. On the other hand, Hasselblad X1D has a 51.0MP Medium format (44 x 33 mm ) sized CMOS sensor .
Hasselblad X1D's sensor provides 27MP more than Panasonic S1's sensor, which gives a significant advantage in real life. You can print your images larger or crop more freely.
On the other hand, please keep in mind that Max sensor resolution is not the only determinant of resolving power. Factors such as the optical elements, low pass filter, pixel size and sensor technology also affects the final resolution of the captured image.
Another difference between these two cameras is that Panasonic S1's sensor lacks anti-alias (Low-Pass) filter. Removing anti-alias filter increases the sharpness and level of detail but at the same time, it increases the chance of moire occurring in certain scenes.
Below you can see the S1 and X1D sensor size comparison.
As seen above, Hasselblad X1D has a 1.7x Larger sensor area than Panasonic S1. Larger sensors give photographer more control on the depth of field and blurry background compared to smaller sensor when shot in same focal length and aperture.
DxOMark Sensor Scores
DxOMark is a benchmark that scientifically assesses image quality of camera sensors. It scores camera sensors for color depth (DXO Portrait), dynamic range (DXO Landscape) and low-light sensitivity (DXO Sports), and also gives them an overall score. Panasonic S1 and Hasselblad X1D sensors have been tested by DxO and the results show that X1D has a better overall score of 102, 7 points higher compared to S1's score of 95.