Nikon Z5 has a 24.0MP Full frame (35.9 x 23.9 mm ) sized CMOS sensor and features Expeed 6 processor. On the other hand, Pentax Q10 has a 12.0MP 1/2.3-inch (6.17 x 4.55 mm ) sized CMOS sensor .
Nikon Z5's sensor provides 12MP more than Pentax Q10's sensor, which gives a significant advantage in real life. You can print your images larger or crop more freely.
On the other hand, please keep in mind that Max sensor resolution is not the only determinant of resolving power. Factors such as the optical elements, low pass filter, pixel size and sensor technology also affects the final resolution of the captured image.
Below you can see the Z5 and Q10 sensor size comparison.
As seen above, Nikon Z5 has a 30.6x Larger sensor area than Pentax Q10. Larger sensors give photographer more control on the depth of field and blurry background compared to smaller sensor when shot in same focal length and aperture.