Nikon D7500 has a 21.0MP APS-C (23.5 x 15.7 mm ) sized CMOS sensor and features Expeed 5 processor. On the other hand, Nikon D750 has a 24.0MP Full frame (35.9 x 24 mm ) sized CMOS sensor and features Expeed 4 processor.
Another difference between these two cameras is that Nikon D7500's sensor lacks anti-alias (Low-Pass) filter. Removing anti-alias filter increases the sharpness and level of detail but at the same time, it increases the chance of moire occurring in certain scenes.
Below you can see the D7500 and D750 sensor size comparison.
As seen above, Nikon D750 has a 2.3x Larger sensor area than Nikon D7500. Larger sensors give photographer more control on the depth of field and blurry background compared to smaller sensor when shot in same focal length and aperture.
DxOMark Sensor Scores
DxOMark is a benchmark that scientifically assesses image quality of camera sensors. It scores camera sensors for color depth (DXO Portrait), dynamic range (DXO Landscape) and low-light sensitivity (DXO Sports), and also gives them an overall score. Nikon D7500 and Nikon D750 sensors have been tested by DxO and the results show that D750 has a better overall score of 93, 7 points higher compared to D7500's score of 86.