Both Fujifilm X100F and Leica Q have 24.0 MP resolution sensors but Fujifilm X100F's sensor is APS-C (23.6 x 15.6 mm ) and Leica Q's sensor is Full frame (36 x 24 mm ).
Since Leica Q's has a larger sensor area with the same resolution, this means that it also has a larger pixel area hence better light collecting capacity for a given aperture compared to Fujifilm X100F.
Another difference between these two cameras is that Fujifilm X100F's sensor lacks anti-alias (Low-Pass) filter. Removing anti-alias filter increases the sharpness and level of detail but at the same time, it increases the chance of moire occurring in certain scenes.
Below you can see the X100F and Q Typ 116 sensor size comparison.
As seen above, Leica Q has a 2.3x Larger sensor area than Fujifilm X100F. Larger sensors give photographer more control on the depth of field and blurry background compared to smaller sensor when shot in same focal length and aperture.