Sony a5100 has a 24.0MP APS-C (23.5 x 15.6 mm ) sized CMOS sensor and features Bionz X processor. On the other hand, Canon M10 has a 18.0MP APS-C (22.3 x 14.9 mm ) sized CMOS sensor and features DIGIC 6 processor.
Sony a5100's sensor provides 6MP more than Canon M10's sensor, which gives a significant advantage in real life. You can print your images larger or crop more freely.
On the other hand, please keep in mind that Max sensor resolution is not the only determinant of resolving power. Factors such as the optical elements, low pass filter, pixel size and sensor technology also affects the final resolution of the captured image.
Below you can see the a5100 and M10 sensor size comparison.
As seen above, Sony a5100 has a 1.1x Larger sensor area than Canon M10. Larger sensors give photographer more control on the depth of field and blurry background compared to smaller sensor when shot in same focal length and aperture.
DxOMark Sensor Scores
Both Sony a5100 and Canon M10 sensors have been tested by DxoMark. DxoMark scores camera sensors for color depth (DXO Portrait), dynamic range (DXO Landscape) and low-light sensitivity (DXO Sports), and also gives them an overall score. Of the two cameras that we are comparing, a5100 has scored 80, 15 points higher than M10.