Both Panasonic S5 II X and Canon R3 have Full frame sized 24.0 MP resolution sensors so sensor size and resolution is not a differentiator between these two cameras.
Another difference between these two cameras is that Panasonic S5 II X's sensor lacks anti-alias (Low-Pass) filter. Removing anti-alias filter increases the sharpness and level of detail but at the same time, it increases the chance of moiré occurring in certain scenes.
Below you can see the S5 Mark II X and R3 sensor size comparison.
Panasonic S5 II X and Canon R3 have almost the same sensor size, so neither of them has any significant advantage over the other in terms of providing control over depth of field when used with the same focal length and aperture.