Panasonic S1H has a 24.0MP Full frame (35.6 x 23.8 mm ) sized CMOS sensor and features Venus Engine processor. On the other hand, Pentax K20D has a 15.0MP APS-C (23.4 x 15.6 mm ) sized CMOS sensor .
Panasonic S1H's sensor provides 9MP more than Pentax K20D's sensor, which gives a significant advantage in real life. You can print your images larger or crop more freely.
On the other hand, please keep in mind that Max sensor resolution is not the only determinant of resolving power. Factors such as the optical elements, low pass filter, pixel size and sensor technology also affects the final resolution of the captured image.
Below you can see the S1H and K20D sensor size comparison.
As seen above, Panasonic S1H has a 2.3x Larger sensor area than Pentax K20D. Larger sensors give photographer more control on the depth of field and blurry background compared to smaller sensor when shot in same focal length and aperture.