Leica Q has a 24.0MP Full frame (36 x 24 mm ) sized CMOS sensor and features Maestro II processor. On the other hand, Canon 5DS has a 51.0MP Full frame (36 x 24 mm ) sized CMOS sensor and features Dual DIGIC 6 processor.
Canon 5DS's sensor provides 27MP more than Leica Q's sensor, which gives a significant advantage in real life. You can print your images larger or crop more freely.
On the other hand, please keep in mind that Max sensor resolution is not the only determinant of resolving power. Factors such as the optical elements, low pass filter, pixel size and sensor technology also affects the final resolution of the captured image.
Below you can see the Q Typ 116 and 5DS sensor size comparison.
Leica Q and Canon 5DS have sensor sizes so they will provide same level of control over the depth of field when used with same focal length and aperture. On the other hand, since Leica Q has 109% larger pixel area compared to Canon 5DS, it has potential to collect more light on pixel level hence have less noise in low light / High ISO images.
DxOMark Sensor Scores
DxOMark is a benchmark that scientifically assesses image quality of camera sensors. It scores camera sensors for color depth (DXO Portrait), dynamic range (DXO Landscape) and low-light sensitivity (DXO Sports), and also gives them an overall score. Leica Q and Canon 5DS sensors have been tested by DxO and the results show that 5DS has a better overall score of 87, 2 points higher compared to Q Typ 116's score of 85.