Canon SX40 HS has a 12.0MP 1/2.3-inch (6.17 x 4.55 mm ) sized BSI-CMOS sensor . On the other hand, Sony RX10 II has a 20.0MP 1″ (13.2 x 8.8 mm ) sized BSI-CMOS sensor and features Bionz X processor.
Sony RX10 II's sensor provides 8MP more than Canon SX40 HS's sensor, which gives a significant advantage in real life. You can print your images larger or crop more freely.
On the other hand, please keep in mind that Max sensor resolution is not the only determinant of resolving power. Factors such as the optical elements, low pass filter, pixel size and sensor technology also affects the final resolution of the captured image.
Below you can see the SX40 HS and RX10 II sensor size comparison.
As seen above, Sony RX10 II has a 4.1x Larger sensor area than Canon SX40 HS. Larger sensors give photographer more control on the depth of field and blurry background compared to smaller sensor when shot in same focal length and aperture.