Canon G3 X has a 20.0MP 1" (13.2 x 8.8 mm ) sized BSI-CMOS sensor and features DIGIC 6 processor. On the other hand, Canon RP has a 26.0MP Full frame (35.9 x 24 mm ) sized CMOS sensor and features Digic 8 processor.
Canon RP's sensor provides 6MP more than Canon G3 X's sensor, which gives a significant advantage in real life. You can print your images larger or crop more freely.
On the other hand, please keep in mind that Max sensor resolution is not the only determinant of resolving power. Factors such as the optical elements, low pass filter, pixel size and sensor technology also affects the final resolution of the captured image.
Below you can see the G3 X and RP sensor size comparison.
As seen above, Canon RP has a 7.4x Larger sensor area than Canon G3 X. Larger sensors give photographer more control on the depth of field and blurry background compared to smaller sensor when shot in same focal length and aperture.
DxOMark Sensor Scores
DxOMark is a benchmark that scientifically assesses image quality of camera sensors. It scores camera sensors for color depth (DXO Portrait), dynamic range (DXO Landscape) and low-light sensitivity (DXO Sports), and also gives them an overall score. Canon G3 X and Canon RP sensors have been tested by DxO and the results show that RP has a better overall score of 85, 22 points higher compared to G3 X's score of 63.