Canon G1 X III has a 24.0MP APS-C (22.3 x 14.9 mm ) sized CMOS sensor and features DIGIC 7 processor. On the other hand, Canon 30D has a 8.0MP APS-C (22.5 x 15 mm ) sized CMOS sensor .
Canon G1 X III's sensor provides 16MP more than Canon 30D's sensor, which gives a significant advantage in real life. You can print your images larger or crop more freely.
On the other hand, please keep in mind that Max sensor resolution is not the only determinant of resolving power. Factors such as the optical elements, low pass filter, pixel size and sensor technology also affects the final resolution of the captured image.
Below you can see the G1 X III and 30D sensor size comparison.
Canon G1 X III and Canon 30D have almost the same sensor size so none of them has any significant advantage over other in providing control over depth of field when used with same focal length and aperture.