Canon 50D has a 15.0MP APS-C (22.3 x 14.9 mm ) sized CMOS sensor and features Digic 4 processor. On the other hand, Sony A7 has a 24.0MP Full frame (35.8 x 23.9 mm ) sized CMOS sensor and features Bionz X processor.
Sony A7's sensor provides 9MP more than Canon 50D's sensor, which gives a significant advantage in real life. You can print your images larger or crop more freely.
On the other hand, please keep in mind that Max sensor resolution is not the only determinant of resolving power. Factors such as the optical elements, low pass filter, pixel size and sensor technology also affects the final resolution of the captured image.
Below you can see the 50D and A7 sensor size comparison.
As seen above, Sony A7 has a 2.6x Larger sensor area than Canon 50D. Larger sensors give photographer more control on the depth of field and blurry background compared to smaller sensor when shot in same focal length and aperture.
DxOMark Sensor Scores
DxOMark is a benchmark that scientifically assesses image quality of camera sensors. It scores camera sensors for color depth (DXO Portrait), dynamic range (DXO Landscape) and low-light sensitivity (DXO Sports), and also gives them an overall score. Canon 50D and Sony A7 sensors have been tested by DxO and the results show that A7 has a better overall score of 90, 27 points higher compared to 50D's score of 63.