Sony RX1R has a 24.0MP Full frame (35.8 x 23.9 mm ) sized CMOS sensor . On the other hand, Sony A7S has a 12.0MP Full frame (35.8 x 23.9 mm ) sized CMOS sensor and features Bionz X processor. Sony RX1R's sensor provides 12MP more than Sony A7S's sensor, which gives a significant advantage in real life. You can print your images larger or crop more freely.
On the other hand, please keep in mind that Max sensor resolution is not the only determinant of resolving power. Factors such as the optical elements, low pass filter, pixel size and sensor technology also affects the final resolution of the captured image.
Another difference between these two cameras is that Sony RX1R's sensor lacks anti-alias (Low-Pass) filter. Removing anti-alias filter increases the sharpness and level of detail but at the same time, it increases the chance of moire occurring in certain scenes.
Below you can see the RX1R and A7S sensor size comparison.
Sony RX1R and Sony A7S have sensor sizes so they will provide same level of control over the depth of field when used with same focal length and aperture. On the other hand, since Sony A7S has 99% larger pixel area (71.24µm2 vs 35.65µm2) compared to Sony RX1R, it has larger pixel area to collect light hence potential to have less noise in low light / High ISO images.