Pentax K-1 has a 36.0MP Full frame (35.9 x 24 mm ) sized CMOS sensor . On the other hand, Nikon Df has a 16.0MP Full frame (36 x 23.9 mm ) sized CMOS sensor and features Expeed 3 processor. Pentax K-1's sensor provides 20MP more than Nikon Df's sensor, which gives a significant advantage in real life. You can print your images larger or crop more freely.
On the other hand, please keep in mind that Max sensor resolution is not the only determinant of resolving power. Factors such as the optical elements, low pass filter, pixel size and sensor technology also affects the final resolution of the captured image.
Another difference between these two cameras is that Pentax K-1's sensor lacks anti-alias (Low-Pass) filter. Removing anti-alias filter increases the sharpness and level of detail but at the same time, it increases the chance of moire occurring in certain scenes.
Below you can see the K-1 and Df sensor size comparison.
Pentax K-1 and Nikon Df have almost the same sensor size so none of them has any significant advantage over other in this area.