Leica Q has a 24.0MP Full frame (36 x 24 mm ) sized CMOS sensor and features Maestro II processor. On the other hand, Panasonic G9 has a 20.0MP Four Thirds (17.3 x 13 mm ) sized CMOS sensor .
Another difference between these two cameras is that Panasonic G9's sensor lacks anti-alias (Low-Pass) filter. Removing anti-alias filter increases the sharpness and level of detail but at the same time, it increases the chance of moire occurring in certain scenes.
Below you can see the Q Typ 116 and G9 sensor size comparison.
As seen above, Leica Q has a 3.8x Larger sensor area than Panasonic G9. Larger sensors give photographer more control on the depth of field and blurry background compared to smaller sensor when shot in same focal length and aperture.