Fujifilm XQ2 has a 12.0MP 2/3" (8.8 x 6.6 mm ) sized CMOS X-TRANS II sensor and features EXR Processor II processor. On the other hand, Fujifilm X-A10 has a 16.0MP APS-C (23.6 x 15.6 mm ) sized CMOS sensor .
Another difference between these two cameras is that Fujifilm X-A10's sensor lacks anti-alias (Low-Pass) filter. Removing anti-alias filter increases the sharpness and level of detail but at the same time, it increases the chance of moire occurring in certain scenes.
Below you can see the XQ2 and X-A10 sensor size comparison.
As seen above, Fujifilm X-A10 has a 6.3x Larger sensor area than Fujifilm XQ2. Larger sensors give photographer more control on the depth of field and blurry background compared to smaller sensor when shot in same focal length and aperture.